Germanic Language Resources

These pages contain a few facsimile reproductions of books related to Gothic, Old Saxon and in the future possibly other Germanic languages. They were scanned while working on the Wulfila project, either for OCR processing or in order to print personal copies (mainly for making annotations). Since the available titles are in the public domain – and often hard to find in antiquarian bookstores or even libraries – it seemed only logical to share them on the Internet. Right now, it's a very limited collection. Many more books can be found at Sean Crist's excellent Germanic Lexicon Project; his website was obviously a source of inspiration.

For the moment being, the texts are only available as facsimile reproductions, in other words as images of the original pages rather than text transcriptions. Obviously, this approach has a few disadvantages: the image files consume a lot of disk space and take a while to download. More importantly, it's not possible to search the text. On the other hand, facsimile editions avoid (or postpone) the time-consuming and error-prone process of proofreading OCR output. They are also far more interesting than digital text from a bibliophile point of view. The best approach seems to be a combination of both, allowing users to verify the accuracy of the online text transcription when in doubt; only then the online resource can truly replace the printed source for scientific purposes. For an interesting practical discussion of these matters we refer to Project Runeberg's Electronic Facsimile Editions of Nordic Literature, an article by Lars Aronsson (Link÷ping University).


Not directly related to the Wulfila project, but currently stored on the same server:

Technical notes

The online resources are provided in three distinct graphical formats, each serving a different purpose:

Detailed descriptions of how the images and documents were generated can be found at the index page of each book. Generally speaking, image conversions were done using ImageMagick, navigational HTML pages were generated using XSL Transformations (processed with Saxon) and PDF documents were created with XSL Formatting objects (processed with Apache FOP).


With the exception of Gysseling 1960, books in this collection are in the public domain: they were published before 1923 and their authors died more than 70 years ago. Feel free to download and use the images and documents as you wish. We would of course appreciate that – in accord with normal scholarly etiquette – use of the materials is acknowledged appropriately, particularly when they are published on other websites.